Mainly, there should be two kinds of questions: about

Descartes

Fermat

van Schooten

Pascal

Huyghens

Barrow

Newton

Leibniz

Bernoulli (various family members)

Berkeley

Bayes

Euler

Legendre

Germain

Gauss

Cauchy

Lamé

Hamilton

Liouville

Kummer

Riemann

Dedekind

Cantor

Evidently, some of these people are more important than others; but you should be able to place

The development of analytic geometry in the 17'th century.

The development of probability theory in the 17'th century.

The earlier and later approaches to "derivatives"

Newton's and Leibniz's different approaches to "calculus", and their "interaction".

The use of infinitesimals in (ordinary) calculus (det vi i dag kallar "elementär analys").

The use of infinitesimals in solving differential equations.

The use of power series in 17'th century calculus; in particular, the extended binomial theorem.

The development of statistics in the 18'th century; including error calculus.

The evolution of the function concept (especially in the 18'th century).

The development of modular calculations.

The earlier treatment of quadratic reciprocity, and the statement and solutions of the quadratic reciprocity theorem.

The attempts to prove Fermat's last theorem, and the development of ring theory.

Extensions of number systems in the 19'th century, and the development of set theory.

Important text books in mathematics in the 17'th and 18'th century.